好书/好文 比特币创世录三:吾谁与归

aaron67 · 2019年02月23日 · 174 次阅读
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  • 英文原文由 Craig S Wright (CSW) 于2019年2月9日发表在Medium
  • 中文版由 邱少贤 翻译,首发公众号 Satoshi Vision


Hal Finney was an amazing man in many ways. Without him, Bitcoin would not exist today. Hal is a far better coder than I will ever hope to be. You see, I’m not a specialist. The initial versions of Bitcoin had a lot of problems. To put it simply, they fell over and crashed repeatedly.

哈尔 · 芬尼在许多方面都是一个了不起的人。 没有他,比特币就不会存在。 哈尔远比我更有希望成为一个更好的程序员。 你看,我不是专家。 比特币的最初版本有很多问题。 简而言之,早期的程序经常崩溃。

Unfortunately, Hal was also a big part of a problem. He got it eventually, but more than anyone else, I think he made me doubt. I’d been working on a solution to a problem that is now expressed as Bitcoin since the 90s. It had resulted in battles with organisations that I had founded early on, in fights with people who did not want to spend so much money on R&D. Without Bitcoin, the earliest decades of my life would have been much easier.

不幸的是,哈尔也是造成问题的主要部分。 最终他还是明白了,但是他比起其他人更让我曾经怀疑。 自上世纪90年代以来,我一直致力于一个问题的解决方案,这个解决的办法现在被称为比特币。 这导致了与我早期创立的机构之间的斗争,与那些不愿在研发上花费太多资金的人之间的斗争。 如果没有比特币,我生命中的前几十年会容易得多。

Hal was far more the anarchist than I could ever imagine. I had many in my circle who were anarchist in nature, and I didn’t really think about the utopian goals they held and problems they could cause later on. Hal wanted people to run nodes early on. He is the reason that we had a block cap. I knew that I should have fought back and not have allowed it.

哈尔远比我想象中的无政府主义者要强得多。 在我的圈子里,有许多从骨子里就是无政府主义者的人,我并没有真正去思考他们所持有的乌托邦式的目标,以及他们以后可能引起的问题。 哈尔希望人们在早期就运行结点。 正是因为他,我们才有了区块的 1m 上限。 我知道我当时应该坚决反对,而不是勉强接纳了它。

The scarcity in Bitcoin is defined in the number of issued tokens. Hence it’s an integer, and there cannot be more decimal places. As much as Hal was a great supporter, he also saw flaws that didn’t exist within Bitcoin.

比特币的稀缺性取决于发行的代币数量。 因此它是一个整数,不能有更多的小数位。 尽管哈尔是一个伟大的支持者,他也看到了比特币中不存在的缺陷。

Towards the end of 2010, I had become incredibly disillusioned. It wasn’t just issues with the Australian government, but rather issues with many parts of life in general.

到了2010年底,我的幻想破灭得难以置信。 这不仅仅是与澳大利亚政府的事情,还包括我生活的许多方面的问题。

I didn’t run away from Bitcoin, but I needed to know more about the system I created. Most critically, I needed to know that it could work at scale as I had planned. Towards the end of 2010, WikiLeaks had started promoting Bitcoin as an end to their woes. WikiLeaks and I have not had a good relationship.

我没有躲避比特币,但我需要更多地了解我创建的系统。 最关键的是,我需要知道它可以按照我的计划在规模上工作。 2010年底,维基解密开始宣传比特币,以结束他们的苦难。 维基解密和我的关系并不好。

Shortly after, the dark web and most prominently Silk Road started integrating Bitcoin. As a system that was designed with an audit trail, Bitcoin was designed not to be even remotely similar to the anonymous digital cash that had been propagated earlier and promoted in systems such as CHL, Monex, and DigiCash.

不久之后,暗网和最显眼的丝绸之路开始整合比特币。 作为一个设计为自带审计跟踪的系统,比特币被设计成与 CHL,Monex 和 DigiCash 等在早期传播系统中推广的匿名数字现金毫无相似之处。

Bitcoin was supposed to solve all their issues, and yet I saw such sites starting to rely on Bitcoin. More importantly, unlike even the more anonymous eCash that had been shut down, Bitcoin was being used on the dark web and not on banks. eCash had been accepted by organisations such as the Deutsche Bank, before it was closed down and the attitude of people involved in the community ensured that no bank or responsible organisation was touching it.

比特币本应解决那些匿名币的所有问题,但我却看到这样的网站开始依赖比特币。 更重要的是,比特币不像那些已经被关闭的匿名货币 eCash 那样,它被用于暗网,而不是银行。 在欧洲货币基金组织被关闭之前,eCash已经被德意志银行(Deutsche Bank)等组织接受,而社区人士的(无政府)态度让任何银行或负责任的组织敬而远之。

Bitcoin started to seem to me to be delivering everything I was opposed to, and everything I thought it was designed not to be started to appear. So, all I can say is that I was disillusioned.

在我看来,比特币变成了我所反对的样子,而我希望它被设计成的模样却无法出现。 所以,我只能说我的幻想破灭了。

Even Hal started to get it. In December 2010, Hal said:

甚至哈尔也开始明白了。 2010年12月,哈尔表示:

“Ultimately it’s good for the network for mining to be expensive. It makes it that much harder for a well financed attacker to dominate the network.”

“最终,矿业网络变得昂贵这有利于比特币。 这使得资金充裕的攻击者更难以控制网络。”

So, unlike the earlier idea of needing to put a cap on and slowly build to allow many nodes, he started to get it. Unfortunately, by the time I was already disillusioned.

因此,不同于需要人为设置一个上限,然后慢慢地构建以保证结点够多的早期想法,他也慢慢悟了。 不幸的是,那时我已经心灰意冷了。

He still saw Bitcoin as the store-of-value and digital-gold idea, though.

不过,他仍然将比特币视为价值储存和数字黄金。

“I see Bitcoin as ultimately becoming a reserve currency for banks, playing much the same role as gold did in the early days of banking. Banks could issue digital cash with greater anonymity and lighter weight, more efficient transactions.”

“我认为,比特币最终将成为银行的储备货币,扮演着与黄金在银行业早期所扮演的角色大致相同的角色。 银行可以发行匿名性更强、分量更轻、交易效率更高的电子现金。”

He never got around to understanding how efficient Bitcoin can be. I guess we all have baggage that weighs us down from the ideas we had before. For Hal, it was the cypherpunk concept of money and digital cash. It is not what Bitcoin is, nor is it what Bitcoin was designed to be.

他从来没有去理解比特币的效率到底有多高。 我想我们每个人都有自己的包袱,这些包袱压垮了我们之前的想法。 对哈尔来说,这就是金钱和数字现金的密码朋克概念。 它既不是比特币的本质,也不是比特币的设计初衷。

What I have learned, and I have learned the lesson very well, is that you cannot teach other people and you cannot make them learn. You can provide material and give them a path to learning.

这是我所学到的教训,一个深刻的领悟,那就是你不能教导别人,你也不能强迫他们去学。 你可以提供相应的材料,给他们指明一条学习的途径。

With people like Hal, I’ve come to learn that no matter how much you like someone, it is not worth investing in saving one person from a flawed idea to the exclusion of offering a means of teaching others. I have learned the hard way not to focus on an individual, not to try and save them but rather to get material out allowing as many people as possible to learn — and first those who seek to learn.

和哈尔这样的人在一起,我学到了无论你多么喜欢一个人,都不值得为了拯救一个人而投资一个有缺陷的想法中,也不值得为了提供一种教导他人的方法而投资。 这个教训对我来说很深刻,我学会了不要把注意力集中在个人身上,不要试图拯救他们,而是把材料拿出来,让尽可能多的人去学习,尤其是那些虚心求学的人。

Learning is a privilege, not a right. It has to be earnt. It is a proof of work in itself. Some people think that it’s important for me to come out and bring everybody in as quickly as I can, except it is utterly wrong.

学习是一种特权,而不是权利。 它必须是努力获取的。 这本身就是工作的证明。 有些人认为我应该尽可能快地走出来,让大家都参与进来,但这是完全错误的。

My time, as with everyone’s, is incredibly limited. We live short fast lives, and unlike many people, I do not have time to waste. So, I only want the people who really really really want to learn. The people who are going to take what they have learnt and create and build and grow the ecosystem.

和其他人一样,我的时间非常有限。 我们的生命很短暂,不像很多人,我没有时间可以浪费。 所以,我只想要那些真正想学习的人。 这些人将利用他们所学到的知识,创造、建立和发展生态系统。

Do you think I care anymore? It’s funny that you do. With close to 1,200 papers in our patent pipeline, no matter what happens now, I will have exceeded Mr. Edison, and by the time I’m finished between everything I publish, I’m hoping to actually achieve 10,000 papers. The funny thing is, you think saying anything against me stops what I am doing. It doesn’t. But it does give me a laugh.

你以为我还在乎吗? 如果你这么想真可笑。 我们的专利库中有将近1200篇论文,不管现在发生什么,我都会超过爱迪生先生,到我完成每一篇论文的时候,我希望实际上达到10000篇论文。 有趣的是,你认为说我的坏话就能阻止我的所作所为。 事实并非如此。 但这确实让我觉得好笑。

In 2010 and early 2011, I was disillusioned as I saw Bitcoin used in a way that it was designed not to be used in. The funny thing is, the people later proved I was right. Because of Bitcoin, Silk Road was stopped, and many of the people behind it are now in prison. It didn’t make things easier at the time, but it is a nice vindication now.

在2010年和2011年初,我的幻想破灭了,因为我看到比特币被设计成不被使用的方式。 有趣的是,这些人后来证明我是对的。 因为比特币,丝绸之路被阻止了,许多幕后黑手现在都身陷囹圄。 这在当时并没有让事情变得简单,但是现在却是一个很好的证明。

I needed to go away, and I needed to prove to myself that the system I had created worked the way I’d intended. It does, and it always did.

我需要离开,我需要向自己证明,我创造的这个系统正如我所期望的那样运作。 的确如此,而且一直如此。

Such is some of the irony I can see in boondoggle attempts to create something that Bitcoin was designed not to be, to try and make it more into something that Hal and Wei would’ve designed.

这就是我能看到的讽刺,人们在毫无意义的尝试中,试图创造一些比特币里本不应该存在的东西,试图让它变得更像哈尔和魏所设计的东西。

Lightning and sidechains are designed to lose records, to allow the creation of an anonymous system that loses records. The reason for the BSA is not consumer protection, it is to ensure that all financial institutions maintain records. Interestingly, everything that is being done to create Lightning and off-chain solutions is the reason why failed cryptocurrencies of the 90s were shut down. The irony is that Bitcoin can only be legal by keeping all records of transactions.

闪电网络和侧链被设计成了记录可被消除,创建了一个可以丢失记录的匿名系统。 BSA 的理由不是保护消费者,而是确保所有金融机构保持记录。 有趣的是,上世纪90年代失败的加密货币被关闭的原因,正是人们为创造闪电网络和链下解决方案所做的一切努力。 具有讽刺意味的是,只有保留所有交易记录,比特币才能合法化。

“The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), as amended and implemented by regulations passed by FinCEN [Financial Crime Enforcement Network], requires a wide-swath of otherwise unregulated financial institutions to register with the government, implement anti-money laundering procedures, keep data, and report certain transactions and other data,” Reuben Grinberg, a lawyer for Davis Polk & Wardwell, wrote in his academic paper on Bitcoin in 2011 — again with the flawed misconception many try to spread that Bitcoin is anonymous.

达维律师事务所的律师 Reuben Grinberg 在2011年关于比特币的学术论文中写道:“金融犯罪执法网络通过的法规对《银行保密法》进行了修订和实施,该法要求大量不受监管的金融机构向政府注册,实施反洗钱程序,保存数据,并报告某些交易和其他数据。”。

When you start to lose records, the concept Lightning and sidechains are designed to create, sidelining the currency altogether becomes simple and effective. “Under the statute, FinCEN has power to prevent US financial institutions from dealing with institutions that deal with Bitcoin, which would essentially outlaw it in the US,” Grinberg (in Quartz). “Previously in interviews I have said that I think it’s unlikely that the US Government would just outright ban Bitcoin. But this action shows that its not impossible.”

当你开始失去记录时,“闪电”和“侧链”的概念就趁虚而入了,把货币完全边缘化就变得简单而有效。 “根据法规,FinCEN 有权阻止美国金融机构与处理比特币的机构打交道,因为这在美国基本上是违法的。”。 “在之前的采访中,我说过,我认为美国政府不太可能直接禁止比特币。 但这一行动表明,这并非不可能。”

Well, not Bitcoin, but, Lightning.

不是比特币,而是闪电。

Liberty Reserve was based in Costa Rica, which is not a member of the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF), the international organisation that collaborates on anti-money-laundering (AML) rules. And yet, Costa Rican authorities cooperated with the US government (which is a member).

自由储备银行总部设在哥斯达黎加,而哥斯达黎加并不是反洗钱打击清洗黑钱财务行动特别组织的成员。 然而,哥斯达黎加当局与美国政府(其中一个成员)进行了合作。

译注:吾谁与归,出处《岳阳楼记》:“ 噫 ! 微斯人 , 吾谁与归?”,指对志同道合者的寻求,意指本文题图。

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